Debido al mal funcionamiento de blogger y los blogspot en China durante esta última semana, nos vemos obligados a efectuar las nuestras deposiciones en diferente plaza... Zhenru&Shanruo a partir de hoy mismo, 7 de diciembre de 2008. Perdón por las molestias. Las aquí ya realizadas permanecerán intactas en tanto en cuanto no se biodegraden o así.


China Human Development Report 2007/08

The China Human Development Report 2007/08 (versión en chino) calls for accelerating the equal provision of basic public services for every Chinese citizen, and echoes the Government’s new stimulus plans to curb the economic slowdown. Comprehensive institutional and policy reforms are essential for China to provide its people with access to improved health services, education, social security and public employment services, says the Report.

“The government’s agenda places priority on providing basic services, and its fast-paced actions to do so will go a long way to ease the challenges at home and abroad from the financial crisis and economic slowdown” said Khalid Malik, United Nations Resident Coordinator and UN Development Programme Resident Representative in China, at the launch of this timely publication. “These timely actions can make people feel more secure to consume, and in turn, help realize China’s urgent goal of keeping a high economic growth rate,” added Malik.

“With budget revenues higher than 20 percent of GDP, with a high national savings rate and with two trillion dollars in official reserves, China now has the resources to make equitable provision of key public services to all China’s people a reality.”

The China Human Development Report 2007/08 titled “Access for All: Basic Public Services for 1.3 Billion People”, was commissioned by UNDP and produced by the China Institute for Reform and Development after one and a half years of research. The report offers nine specific policy recommendations to help China reduce gaps in basic public services and improve the lives of rural and other vulnerable populations. At the center of these policy recommendations is the right of all Chinese citizens to a clearly defined set of basic public services framed by common standards.

The report notes that China has made huge strides in human development in the last 30 years, and the country’s Human Development Index is now at its highest level, and nearing the status of “high human development”. However, major challenges remain. Human development gaps have widened sharply between urban and rural areas, between the prosperous coastal regions and the poorer interior regions, between men and women, and between registered urban residents and urban migrants.

“China’s achievement has established a foundation for the next period of development, in which sustained reforms in public service institutions and systems can help meet the demands of a more advanced society and economy,” says the Report. “In the new era of Chinese development, real access to basic public services of good quality should be acknowledged as a fundamental right of all Chinese people and a bedrock responsibility of the Chinese government,” says the Report.

Key findings in the Report:

Public services are key to China’s future prosperity. China’s future prosperity and competitiveness depend on the provision of good quality and affordable basic public services, a core set of essential health, education, social security and public employment services for all Chinese citizens, women and men, in urban and rural areas, in wealthier and poorer regions, including migrant workers and their families.

Rural-urban inequality will further widen without affordable public services guaranteed for all. “If poor households do not have access to affordable public services of good quality, the income gap between rural and urban areas will continue to translate into gaps in access to health care, education, safe water and other basic services and create the danger of a poverty trap,” says the Report. “Without strong action, the great gaps in basic public services and the disparities in human capital that they engender may create permanent divisions that are difficult to reverse.”

Higher education is needed to enhance earning power of the poor. The education divide persists between rural and urban areas, and poorer and wealthier regions of the country. The Report points out that not only should the Government guarantee “a basic primary and middle school education, but also set minimum quality standards to ensure higher quality education to allow people to compete in the labour market.”

The health care system should ensure equitable access for rural poor. No public service has more direct impact on human development than health care. Although emphasis has started to shift toward providing better rural health care, rural medical facilities still receive lower investment than urban, and rural medical care systems require large out of pocket expenditures that are still an inhibiting factor for the poor who need medical treatment. New medical insurance programs should provide broad enough coverage that poor rural populations have real health care access.

Fiscal reform is essential. “China's fiscal position has improved dramatically over the last decades but compared to others, China has a low social spending to GDP”, states the Report. Using the available fiscal resources to improve public service delivery will require fiscal reforms. This includes allocating financial resources to local governments responsible for providing public services.

A nationally unified policy is important for the equitable provision of basic public services to rural migrant workers. Migrant workers make great contributions to the economies of the urban areas where they work, but are still denied access to basic public services that are comparable to those received by their neighbors with urban residence status. A national commitment to a unified and comprehensive system of public services for all migrant workers is needed to solve this problem.

Provincial and local authorities should be held accountable. The government should set equitable access to basic public services as its main goal and function. “The accountability of government officials to the equalization of basic public service targets must be strengthened, by giving service indicators a prominent place in performance evaluations.”

Improve the rule of law. For these goals to be achieved they should be given clear foundations in law; a review of all the current legislation and regulations that govern public services should be undertaken and replace them with a systematic, coherent, and enforceable legal and regulatory framework that ensures more efficient public service delivery.

Since UNDP produced the first global Human Development Report (HDR) in 1990, HDRs have emerged as its flagship publication and one of UNDP’s most important policy analysis and advocacy tools. Since 1997 China has produced five National Human Development Reports (NHDRs) covering a range of vital development issues. These NHDR exercises have proved to be successful and worthwhile, playing a unique role in UNDP’s endeavour to support China’s development policy making. The fifth China NHDR, entitled “Access for All: Basic Public Services for 1.3 Billion People”, was coordinated by the China Institute for Reform and Development, a leading think tank based in Haikou, Hainan. Over the years, China’s NHDRs have also become useful reference books for academia and UNDP China’s development partners worldwide. It is gradually evolving into one of the principal instruments for the office to work together with Chinese national think tanks, policy makers and development researchers.

Fuente. (中文). 联合国开发计划署

6 comentarios:

Anónimo dijo...


[b]Xrumer SEO Professionals

As Xrumer experts, we possess been using [url=]Xrumer[/url] for the benefit of a sustained time things being what they are and grasp how to harness the enormous power of Xrumer and build it into a Cash machine.

We also yield the cheapest prices on the market. Numberless competitors will expect 2x or temperate 3x and a lot of the term 5x what we responsibility you. But we feel in providing great service at a tearful affordable rate. The entire direct attention to of purchasing Xrumer blasts is because it is a cheaper variant to buying Xrumer. So we aim to stifle that contemplating in mind and afford you with the cheapest censure possible.

Not simply do we have the unexcelled prices but our turnaround occasion payment your Xrumer posting is super fast. We intention take your posting done to come you know it.

We also cater you with a full log of successful posts on different forums. So that you can catch a glimpse of seeking yourself the power of Xrumer and how we be struck by harnessed it to help your site.[/b]

[b]Search Engine Optimization

Using Xrumer you can trust to apprehend thousands upon thousands of backlinks over the extent of your site. Myriad of the forums that your Place you settle upon be posted on get great PageRank. Having your association on these sites can truly expropriate found up some top-grade dignity back links and genuinely aid your Alexa Rating and Google PageRank rating utterly the roof.

This is making your site more and more popular. And with this better in regard as superbly as PageRank you can think to witness your site absolutely downright expensive in those Search Locomotive Results.

The amount of traffic that can be obtained aside harnessing the power of Xrumer is enormous. You are publishing your site to tens of thousands of forums. With our higher packages you may regular be publishing your position to HUNDREDS of THOUSANDS of forums. Visualize 1 mail on a in demand forum will by rig out 1000 or so views, with communicate 100 of those people visiting your site. Modern devise tens of thousands of posts on fashionable forums all getting 1000 views each. Your shipping longing go because of the roof.

These are all targeted visitors that are interested or curious about your site. Deem how many sales or leads you can succeed in with this colossal figure up of targeted visitors. You are literally stumbling upon a goldmine primed to be picked and profited from.

Retain, Above is Money.


Anónimo dijo...

Accord Our Extermination of consciousness Prices at, The Unmixed [b][url=]Online Dispensary [/url][/b] To [url=]Buy Viagra[/url] Online ! You Can also Espy Pre-eminent Deals When You [url=]Buy Cialis[/url] and When You You [url=]Buy Levitra[/url] Online. We Also Hero on a Huge Generic [url=]Phentermine[/url] In aide-de-camp of Your Victuals ! We Hawk Maker designation [url=]Viagra[/url] and Also [url=]Generic Viagra[/url] !

Anónimo dijo...

About casinos? frame undeviating of this advanced [url=]casino[/url] thrust and actuate believe online casino games like slots, blackjack, roulette, baccarat and more at .
you can also tarry our blooming [url=]casino[/url] be lacking at and attainment during the sure of with around law lively dough !
another solitary [url=]casino spiele[/url] stage is , as opposed to of german gamblers, manipulate repayment after unrestrained online casino bonus.

Anónimo dijo...

Dear Alicia,

For long time I use this free software: [url=]FLV to MP3 free converter[/url].

FLV to MP3 free converter is a free YouTube, MegaVideo, Metacafe and similar video sites to MP3 Converter and allows you to convert a video to MP3 file.

This software is fast, free, and requires no signup. All you need is a FLV Video file, and this software will extract the MP3, and give you an audio file.

So you are able to listen to your favorite YouTube tracks on every MP3 player.

You can download it for free at [url=][/url].

I hope this help you.

Anónimo dijo...

Anónimo dijo...

[url=]Porn video online[/url]
[url=]Porn video download[/url]
[url=]Porn video torrent[/url]
[url=]Gay porn online[/url]
[url=]Teen porn online[/url]
[url=]Free porn videos online[/url]
[url=]Best porn video[/url]

Por temas...